The regulation of Strategic Environmental Assessment in Brazil

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18472/SustDeb.v13n1.2022.40630

Abstract

The practice of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) has been expanding worldwide, aiming to include environmental issues within strategic planning. However, there is no precise regulation of SEA application in Brazil, and this practice is not systematic. In this context, this paper aimed to evaluate proposals for regulating SEA in Brazil regarding the elements of a SEA system. Documented proposals were identified through literature reviews, and the identified 14 documents’ content was analysed according to best practice criteria. Gaps were identified in all proposals, and none of the proposals met all the criteria applied in this research. The definition of objectives and SEA field of application was the criteria best reached (present in more than 70% of the documents). However, most of the proposals were limited only to these points, missing other essential elements of a SEA system. These results indicate a low institutional maturity concerning SEA in Brazil.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Author Biographies

Rosane de Souza Oliveira, Master’s Degree in Environmental Quality, Environmental Engineer, Federal University of Uberlândia, Uberlândia, MG, Brazil

Graduated in Biological Sciences from the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU)/MG, specialist in Environmental Management from the Faculdade Católica de Uberlândia, Master in Environmental Quality from UFU/MG, Graduatedin Environmental Engineering from UFU. I was part of the teams of the Sustainability Board at UFU, participating in projects related to sustainable logistics, SDGs Universities Network, A3P and environmental education and the company Landscape Ambiental as an analyst, monitoring licensing processes and environmental constraints and developing socio-environmental projects.

Anne Caroline Malvestio, PhD in Environmental Engineering Sciences, Professor at Federal University of Uberlândia, Uberlândia, MG, Brazil

Professor at the Federal University of Uberlândia (UFU), researching Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental policy instruments. She is graduated in Environmental Engineering from the School of Engineering of São Carlos, University of São Paulo (EESC/USP) and holds a Master degree and PhD in Environmental Engineering Sciences from EESC/USP. She was a visiting researcher at University Nova de Lisboa (Portugal) and University of Liverpool (United Kingdom), researching Strategic Environmental Assessment.

References

ATHAYDE, S. et al. Viewpoint: the far-reaching dangers of rolling back environmental licensing and impact assessment legislation in Brazil. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, v. 94, p. 106742, 1 maio 2022.

BINA, O. A critical review of the dominant lines of argumentation on the need for Strategic Environmental Assessment. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, v. 27, n. 7, p. 585–606, out. 2007.

BINA, O. Context and systems: thinking more broadly about effectiveness in Strategic Environmental Assessment in China. Environmental Management, v. 42, p. 717–733, 2008.

CHAKER, A. et al. A review of Strategic Environmental Assessment in 12 selected countries. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, v. 26, n. 1, p. 15–56, 2006.

CHERP, A.; WATT, A.; VINICHENKO, V. SEA and strategy formation theories: from three Ps to five Ps. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, v. 27, n. 7, p. 624–644, 2007.

DUSIK, J.; SADLER, B. Reforming strategic environmental assessment systems: lessons from Central and Eastern Europe. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, v. 22, n. 2, p. 89–97, 2004.

EUROPEAN COMMISSION. Directive 2001/42/EC on the assessment of the effects of certain plans and programmes on the environment. 2001. Available in: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/sea-legalcontext.htm.

FISCHER, T. B. Strategic environmental assessment in post-modern times. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, v. 23, n. 2, p. 155–170, 2003.

FISCHER, T. B. Theory and practice of strategic environmental assessment: towards a more systematic approach. UK; USA: Earthscan, 2007.

FISCHER, T. B.; GAZZOLA, P. SEA effectiveness criteria – equally valid in all countries? The case of Italy. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, v. 26, n. 4, p. 396–409, 006.

FISCHER, T. B.; GONZÁLEZ, A. Handbook on Strategic Environmental Assessment. UK; USA: Edward Elgar, 2021.

FONSECA, A.; GIBSON, R. B. Testing an ex-ante framework for the evaluation of impact assessment laws: lessons from Canada and Brazil. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, v. 81, p. 106355, 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eiar.2019.106355.

FONSECA, A.; SÁNCHEZ, L. H.; RIBEIRO, J. C. J. Reforming EIA systems: a critical review of proposals in Brazil. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, v. 62, p. 90-97, 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.eiar.2016.10.002.

GALLARDO, A. L. C. F.; MACHADO, D. M. M.; KNIESS, C. T. Avaliação Ambiental Estratégica na Pesquisa Acadêmica Brasileira. Ambiente & Sociedade, v. 24, p. 1–25, dez. 2021.

GONZÁLEZ, A.; THERIVEL, R. Raising the game in environmental assessment: insights from tiering practice. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, v. 92, 2022. DOI: 10.1016/j.eiar.2021.106695.

HILDING-RYDEVIK, T.; BJARNADÓTTIR, H. Context awareness and sensitivity in SEA implementation. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, v. 27, n. 7, p. 666-684, 2007.

JAY, S. et al. Environmental Impact Assessment: retrospect and prospect. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, v. 27, p. 287–300, 2007.

KELLY, A. H.; JACKSON, T.; WILLIAMS, P. Strategic environmental assessment: lessons for New South Wales, Australia, from Scottish practice. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, v. 30, n. 2, p. 75–84, 2012.

KØRNØV, L.; THISSEN, W. A. H. Rationality in decision - and policy-making: implications for strategic environmental assessment. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, v. 18, n. 3, p. 191–200, set. 2000.

LOAYZA, F. Strategic Environmental Assessment in the World Bank: learning from recent experience and challenges. World Bank. 2012.

MADRID, C. K.; HICKEY, G. M.; BOUCHARD M. A. Strategic environmental assessment effectiveness and the initiative for the integration of regional infrastructure in South America (IIRSA): a multiple case review. Journal of Environmental Assessment and Policy Management, v. 13, n. 4, p. 515–540, 2011. DOI: 10.1142/S1464333211003997.

MALVESTIO, A. C.; FISCHER, T. B.; MONTAÑO, M. The consideration of environmental and social issues in transport policy, plan and programme making in Brazil: a systems analysis. Journal of Cleaner Production, v. 179, p. 674–689, 2018.

MALVESTIO, A. C.; MONTAÑO, M. From medicine to poison: how flexible strategic environmental assessment may be? Lessons from a non-regulated SEA system. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, v. 37, n. 5, p. 437-451, 2019.

MARGATO, V.; SÁNCHEZ, L. E. Quality and outcomes: a critical review od Strategic Environmental Assessment in Brazil. Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management, v. 16, n. 2, p. 1–32, 2014.

MONTAÑO, M.; FISCHER, T. B. Towards a more effective approach to the development and maintenance of SEA guidance. Impact Assess Project Appraisal, v. 37, n. 2, p. 97–106, 2019.

MONTAÑO, M.; MALVESTIO, A. N.; OPPERMANN, P. Institutional Learning by SEA Practice in Brazil. UVP-report, v. 27, n. (4+5), p. 201-206, 2013.

MONTAÑO, M. et al. Current state of the sea system in Brazil: a comparative study. Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management, v. 16, n. 2, 2014.

MONTAÑO, M.; TSHIBANGU, G. M.; MALVESTIO, A. C. Strategic environmental assessment in Brazil: an endangered species? In: FISCHER, T. B.; GONZÁLEZ, A. (Ed.). Handbook on Strategic Environmental Assessment. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2021a. p. 363–373.

MONTAÑO, M.; TSHIBANGU, G. M.; MALVESTIO, A. C. Does New Regulation Points to an Effective Use of Strategic Environmental Assessment? Lessons from Democratic Republic of Congo. Journal of Environmental Protection, v. 12, n. 12, p. 1102–1127, 2021b.

MORGAN, R.; TAYLOR, N. Strategic environmental assessment in New Zealand. In: FISCHER, T. B.; GONZÁLEZ, A. (Ed.). Handbook on Strategic Environmental Assessment. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2021. p. 332–348.

MORRISON-SAUNDERS, A.; FISCHER, T. B. What is wrong with EIA and SEA anyway? A sceptic’s perspective on sustainability assessment. Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management, v. 8, n. 1, p. 19–39, 2006.

NOBLE, B. F.; NWANEKEZIE, K. Conceptualising strategic environmental assessment: principles, approaches and research directions. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, v. 62, p. 165– 173, 2017.

PARTIDÁRIO, M. R. Strategic Environmental Assessment: key issues emerging from recent practice. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, v. 16, p. 31–55, 1996.

PARTIDÁRIO, M. DO R. Strategic Environmental Assessment better practice guide: methodological guidance for strategic thinking in SEA. Lisboa. 2012 Available in: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/eia/pdf/2012 SEA_Guidance_Portugal.pdf.

PARTIDÁRIO, M. R. Strategic thinking for sustainability (ST4S) in strategic environmental assessment. In: FISCHER, T. B.; GONZÁLEZ, A. (Ed.). Handbook on Strategic Environmental Assessment. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2021. p. 41–57.

PELLIN, A. et al. Avaliação Ambiental Estratégica no Brasil: considerações a respeito do papel das agências multilaterais de desenvolvimento. Engenharia Sanitária e Ambiental, v. 16, n. 1, p. 27-36, 2011.

PIZELLA, D. G.; SOUZA, M. P. DE. Brazilian GMO regulation: does it have an environmental approach? Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management, v. 14, n. 2, 2012.

PORTO, M. F. A.; PORTO, R. L. L. Gestão de bacias hidrográficas. Estudos Avançados, v. 22, n. 63, p. 43–60, 2008.

RETIEF, F. Effectiveness of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in South Africa. Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management, v. 9, n. 1, p. 83–101, 2007.

RETIEF, F. P.; STEENKAMP, C.; ALBERTS, R. C. Strategic environmental assessment in South Africa: “The Road Not Taken”. In: FISCHER, T. B.; GONZÁLEZ, A. (Ed.). Handbook on Strategic Environmental Assessment. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2021. p. 349–362.

SADLER, B. et al. Handbook of Strategic Environmental Assessment. London: Earthscan, 2011.

SÁNCHEZ, L. E. Por que não avança a avaliação ambiental estratégica no Brasil? Estudos Avançados, São Paulo, v. 31, n. 89, p. 167-183, 2017.

SEHT, H. VON. Requirements of a comprehensive strategic environmental

assessment system. Landscape and Urban Planning, v. 45, n. 1, p. 1–14, 1999.

SILVA, A. W. L.; SELIG, P. M.; BELLEN, H. M. VAN. Use of Sustainability Indicators in Strategic Environmental Assessment Processes Conducted in Brazil. Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management, v. 16, n. 2, p. 1450008, 2014.

SMITH, S. P.; SHEATE, W. R. Sustainability appraisal of English regional plans: incorporating the requirements of the EU Strategic Environmental Assessment Directive. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, v. 19, n. 4, p. 263–276, 2001.

TETLOW, M. F.; HANUSCH, M. Strategic Environmental Assessment: the state of the art. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, v. 30, n. 1, p. 15–24, 2012.

THERIVEL, R. Systems of strategic environmental assessment. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, v. 13, n. 3, p. 145–168, 1993.

TSHIBANGU, G. M.; MONTAÑO, M. Outcomes and contextual aspects of strategic environmental assessment in a non-mandatory context: the case of Brazil. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, v. 37, n. 3–4, p. 334–343, 2019.

VICTOR, D.; AGAMUTHU, P. Policy trends of strategic environmental assessment in Asia. Environmental Science and Policy, p. 1–14, 2014.

VILARDO, C. et al. Lost at SEA? Environmental assessment and offshore oil and gas planning in Brazil. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, v. 38, n. 3, p. 261–268, 2020.

WALLINGTON, T.; BINA, O.; THISSEN, W. Theorising strategic environmental assessment: fresh perspectives and future challenges. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, v. 27, n. 7, p. 569–584, 2007.

WIRUTSKULSHAI, U.; SAJOR, E.; COOWANITWONG, N. Importance of context in adoption and progress in application of strategic environmental assessment: experience of Thailand. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, v. 31, n. 3, p. 352–359, abr. 2011.

Published

2022-04-29 — Updated on 2022-04-29

Versions

How to Cite

Oliveira, R. de S., & Malvestio, A. C. (2022). The regulation of Strategic Environmental Assessment in Brazil. Sustainability in Debate, 13(1), 90. https://doi.org/10.18472/SustDeb.v13n1.2022.40630