Bibliographic References

The inclusion of the bibliographic references used is mandatory for the consideration of all texts sent to SeD journal and must follow the following rules:

Text body

a) References or bibliographic calls in the body of the text must adopt the author-date-page system (the last in the case of direct citations), also called the parenthetical system;

b) The source is indicated by the author’s last name or by the full name of the institution responsible for the publication, up to the first punctuation mark, followed by the date of publication of the document (year) and the page(s) citation (only in cases of direct citations). The three components must be separated from each other by commas and must be in parentheses: 

  • Reference in the text, with direct citation:
    • Bobbio (1995, p. 30) reminds us, when commenting on this situation, that “medieval jurists formally justified the validity of Roman law considering that this was the right of the Roman Empire that had been reconstituted by Charlemagne with the name of Holy Empire Roman."
  • Reference in the text, in paraphrase:
    • Merrian and Caffarella (1991) note that the location of resources plays a crucial role in the self-directed learning process.
  • End of Paragraph: Remember that when the reference appears at the end of the paragraph, the author(s) surname(s) must be written in capital letters and inserted in parentheses.
    • : "(...). The location of resources plays a crucial role in the self-directed learning process (MERRIAM and CAFFARELLA, 1991).
  • Reference in the text, with direct citation:
    • “The community must be able to be exchanged in any circumstance, without any state restrictions, for the currencies of other Member States” (COMISSÃO DAS COMUNIDADES EUROPEIAS, 1992, p. 34).

List of Bibliographic References

The SeD adopts the alphabetic system to compose the list of references. In this case, references must be gathered at the end of the work and arranged in alphabetical order of the last surnames from the first authors of each reference: 

a) The list must not be numbered and must follow the examples below, according to ABNT Rule 6023: 

  • ARAUJO, UAM Tukuna one-piece masks: possibilities for studying museum artifacts for the knowledge of the indigenous universe. 102 p. Dissertation (Masters in Social Sciences). São Paulo School of Sociology and Politics Foundation, São Paulo, 1986. 
  • GURGEL, C. State Reform and Public Security.Politics and Administration, Rio de Janeiro, v. 3, n. 2, p. 15-21, Sept. 1997. 
  • KELLY, R. Electronic publishing at APS: its not just online journalism. APS News Online, Los Angeles, Nov. 1996. Available from: (website). Accessed on: 25 Nov. 1998.
  • NAVES, P. Andean lakes bathe in beauty. Folha de S. Paulo , São Paulo, 28 jun. 1999. Folha Turismo, Notebook 8, p. 13. 
  • ROMANO, G. Images of youth in the modern age. In: LEVI, G.; SCHMIDT, J. (Org.). History of young people 2.São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 1996. p. 7-16. 
  • SOUZA, LS; BORGES, AL; REZENDE, JO Influence of soil correction and preparation on some chemical properties of soil cultivated with banana trees. In: BRAZILIAN MEETING OF SOIL FERTILITY AND PLANTS NUTRITION, 21., 1994, Petrolina. Proceedings... Petrolina: EMBRAPA, CPATSA, 1994. p. 3-4.
  • WEBER, M. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism.São Paulo: Pioneer, 1999. 

b) Even if more than one work by the same author appears in the bibliography, we ask that the author surname and name be written in full. Avoid dashes by substituting the name in the second reference by the same author.