Sustainability in Debate 2022-04-13T11:07:41-03:00 Patrícia Mesquita Open Journal Systems <p>The Sustainability in Debate (SiD) Journal aims to publish original texts based on interdisciplinary research and influencing studies conducted in sustainable development and sustainability policies globally.</p> <p> </p> Dossier - Environmental Impact Assessment, its faces and interfaces 2022-04-13T11:07:41-03:00 Maria Rita Raimundo Almeida Fernanda Aparecida Veronez Alberto de Freitas Castro Fonseca 2022-04-29T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sustainability in Debate Implications of a new licensing framework on the impact assessment of water and sewage systems 2021-11-25T16:30:51-03:00 Izabel Freitas Brandão Amarilis Lucia Casteli Figueiredo Gallardo <p>A bill pending in the Brazilian Senate may change profoundly the characteristics and practice of environmental licensing in Brazil, including removing the obligation to obtain an environmental license for specific projects, such as those related to water supply and sanitary sewage. This timely bibliographical and documental study aims to analyse the development of specific legislation on environmental impact assessment (EIA) and environmental licensing of these two types of projects and compare them with the changes provided by the proposed Licensing Law. The work uses the identification and analysis of specific rules and legal documents that make up the current regulatory framework for licensing and the changes provided by the bill. The flexibility and exclusion of environmental licensing, without scientific rigour, ignore the importance of this instrument for environmental integration into decision-making. Furthermore, projects could damage the environment without such analysis due to the need to expand water supply and sanitation systems.</p> 2022-04-29T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sustainability in Debate The experience of the municipalities of Minas Gerais State (Brazil) that implemented local environmental licensing 2022-02-25T09:38:13-03:00 Mônica de Souza Alves Alexandre Túlio Amaral Nascimento Alberto de Freitas Castro Fonseca <p>The objective of this study was to explore the experience of the municipalities of the state of Minas Gerais that implemented local environmental licensing. For this purpose, representatives of the state administration were interviewed, and an electronic questionnaire was sent to analysts of 121 municipalities that took up environmental licensing, from which 39 responses were obtained. The key drivers of local environmental licensing were concerns over licensing procedural delays by the state government and the need for administrative efficiency. Knowledge of local conditions and the proximity between the local government, communities and developers were identified as facilitators of licensing. Shortage of staff, precarious hiring processes, and lack of infrastructure were identified as the main barriers to local environmental licensing. The municipalities that have implemented local environmental licensing perceive planning, administrative capacity, competent technical and legal teams, and capacity-building as essential elements of an effective local environmental licensing system. The study concludes with suggestions of future research avenues.</p> 2022-04-29T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sustainability in Debate The regulation of Strategic Environmental Assessment in Brazil 2022-03-15T18:20:08-03:00 Rosane de Souza Oliveira Anne Caroline Malvestio <p>The practice of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) has been expanding worldwide, aiming to include environmental issues within strategic planning. However, there is no precise regulation of SEA application in Brazil, and this practice is not systematic. In this context, this paper aimed to evaluate proposals for regulating SEA in Brazil regarding the elements of a SEA system. Documented proposals were identified through literature reviews, and the identified 14 documents’ content was analysed according to best practice criteria. Gaps were identified in all proposals, and none of the proposals met all the criteria applied in this research. The definition of objectives and SEA field of application was the criteria best reached (present in more than 70% of the documents). However, most of the proposals were limited only to these points, missing other essential elements of a SEA system. These results indicate a low institutional maturity concerning SEA in Brazil.</p> 2022-04-29T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sustainability in Debate Contributions of the French Strategic Environmental Assessment to Brazilian planning in water source areas: the Billings Reservoir sub-basin case 2021-11-23T16:29:55-03:00 Carla Grigoletto Duarte Larissa Ribeiro Souza Simone Mendonça dos Santos <p>Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is a tool that aims to integrate environmental issues into decision-making processes, usually to support the development of sectoral or territorial plans and programs. SEA is mandatory in the European Union and is applied to water management in France. Water management in Brazil is inspired by the French model, but does not have SEA; in the state of São Paulo watersheds of interest for public supply have specific norms and can count on a Development and Environmental Protection Plan (PDPA). In this research we explore three potential contributions of SEA as adopted in French water management for the case of the PDPA of the Billings Reservoir sub-basin. We conducted an evaluative case study for this PDPA, a literature review on French practices, and comparative analysis. We conclude by indicating potential contributions of SEA for the definition of objectives, scoping, and study of alternatives of the PDPA-Billings.</p> 2022-04-29T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sustainability in Debate Environmental licensing screening in Espírito Santo state: the practice for small Hydroelectric Power Plants 2021-11-13T18:14:50-03:00 Fernanda Aparecida Veronez Maria Stella Sena Estevam Maria Rita Raimundo e Almeida <p>In the context of Environmental Licensing (EL), project screening is an essential process that establishes whether Environmental Impact Assessment is needed or not. This paper analyzes the EL screening of a type of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants (less than 3 MW) in Espírito Santo state and compares it with other states in Brazil. The methodological process involved document analysis, good practices criteria application, and comparative analyses of the case study. The document analysis allowed us to understand how EL procedures in Espírito Santo have changed over time. The good practices criteria application allowed us to discuss how well processes aligned with outlined objectives. Finally, the comparative analysis between Espírito Santo and other Brazilian states allowed us to identify possible improvements for Espírito Santo's EL system. For example, screening could be improved by considering environmental sensitivity metrics for project classification and establishing guidelines for case-by-case analyses.</p> 2022-04-29T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sustainability in Debate Participatory Methodologies and the Production of Data on Artisanal Fishing in Areas with Offshore Wind Farm Projects in Ceará, Brazil 2022-01-19T21:41:52-03:00 Thomaz Willian de Figueiredo Xavier Adryane Gorayeb Christian Brannstrom <p><em>Offshore</em> wind farms (OWF) are an essential emerging energy source. In Brazil, environmental licensing of OWFs requires an identification map of multiple preexisting uses, targeting potentially conflicting activities, such as fishing and navigation routes. The objective of the work was to evaluate the application of participatory methodologies in the construction of data on fishing activity, aiming at analyzing potential impacts of OWFs in marine territories of the state of Ceará, with a focus on artisanal fishing. A participatory map and fishing calendar were produced in C<em>olônia</em> Z18, Amontada, Ceará. Data collection took place through four participatory workshops with 45 participants. The data were digitized in a GIS environment and later validated with the community. The results show complete overlap between an OWF and the local fishing activity. Thus, participatory methodologies can help in the acquisition of fishery data and the assessment of the multiple uses of marine territories.</p> 2022-04-29T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sustainability in Debate Environmental impacts of hydropower plants in Brazil: an identification guide 2021-11-23T16:29:23-03:00 Fernanda Aparecida Veronez Fabrício Raig Dias Lima Ghislain Mwamba Tshibangu <p>This paper presents a guide for identifying the environmental impacts of hydroelectric enterprises. The qualitative research used the following methods: case studies, systematic literature review (SLR), content analysis, and consultation with expe ts. Four sources of information were used, including Environmental Impact Statements (EISs), scientific articles, best practice guides, and expert consultation. All EISs of hydroelectric plants submitted to the Brazilian federal Environmental Licensing between 2010 and 2020 (8 EISs) were analysed. RSL identified 68 scientific papers eligible for analysis and collection of impacts. The results were compared with Canadian practice and discussed in a virtual workshop of 15 expe ts. The guide has 90 impacts and can be used by environmental consulting firms and environmental agencies in the preliminary identification of environmental impacts of hydroelectric dams, contributing to the improvement of planning carried out in the EIA scoping stage of future environmental studies of this type.</p> 2022-04-29T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sustainability in Debate The situation in Ukraine, the consequences of the war for Ukrainian society, science development and sustainability 2022-03-22T17:47:49-03:00 Olena Bilyk Veronika Karkovska Mariia Khim 2022-04-29T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sustainability in Debate SiD - Table of Contents / Sumário 2022-04-13T10:30:44-03:00 Sustainability in Debate - SiD 2022-04-29T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sustainability in Debate An institutional framework for Bioinputs in Brazilian agriculture based on Ecological Economics 2022-01-31T23:24:01-03:00 Fabiana Pereira de Souza Tatiana Portela Ribeiro Castilho Luís Otávio Bau Macedo <p>In search of sustainability, new patterns for production or consumption have been created in opposition to conventional products, such as biological inputs or "bioinputs". They are products, processes or technologies of animal, plant or microbial origin which can positively affect agricultural production. The adherence of rural producers to sustainable and economic agricultural practices, which use bioinputs, is growing in Brazil. They have been encouraged to adopt these products because of the existence of the National Bioinputs Program, created in 2020. The results show that several benefits have been associated with their use. However, inadequate handling can bring negative externalities that could be avoided. It requires an institutional framework to guide the country's production and use of bioinputs. This article proposes a new institutional framework based on ecological economics and institutionalism, considering Brazil's sociopolitical and environmental situation.</p> 2022-04-29T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sustainability in Debate Agroforestry systems associated with natural regeneration: alternatives practiced by family-farmers of Tomé-Açu, Pará 2022-01-18T18:05:24-03:00 Mário Oliveira Neto Livia de Freitas Navegantes Alves Gustavo Schwartz <p>The objective of this article was to analyze the benefits of Agroforestry Systems (AFSs) association with natural regeneration promoted by family farmers of Tomé-Açu, Pará, Brazil. Based on 46 previous interviews with family farmers, 12 of them were selected due to the presence of AFSs with different levels of tree species diversity, in which richness and diversity of tree species were taken into account. In addition, the measurement of the floristic variables was carried out. Results showed that 17% of the AFSs have natural regeneration corridors. This type of AFS has high species richness and diversity (Shannon-Weaner = 2.5), and its main characteristic is the presence of regeneration corridors of secondary forests. Therefore, farmers make production and forest regeneration compatible, and: a) maintain in their AFSs environmental services provided by regenerated secondary forests, b) ensure food security for their families, and c) they may have financial incomes from selling AFS products.</p> 2022-04-29T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sustainability in Debate The productive autonomy of public forest-dwellers in the Amazon: two case studies of community timber management 2022-02-10T14:00:18-03:00 Jéssica Pacheco Cláudia Azevedo-Ramos Eduardo Nakano <p>Forest-dwellers in the Brazilian Amazon public forests share the management of the territory and natural resources with governmental agencies, subjecting themselves to State rules. This study aims to evaluate the perception of stakeholders about the autonomy of traditional communities to carry out community timber forest management (CFM) in two federal protected areas. A Swot analysis revealed mismatches in priorities among stakeholder groups (Communities, Government and Partners). Four autonomy parameters were evaluated by 111 stakeholders using a satisfaction questionnaire. Communities and Government had similar perceptions of the autonomy of communities to develop CFM, while Partners were pessimistic. Stakeholders showed greater satisfaction with communities’ social organization than with their business management ability. Licensing, operational tools and administrative knowledge were perceived as bottlenecks for community enterprises. Nevertheless, targeted public policies and a minimum regulatory requirement for CFM may guarantee community autonomy to maintain their way of life and make their forest enterprises viable.</p> 2022-04-29T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sustainability in Debate Role of the public prosecutor’s office experts in the environmental licensing of the Mexilhão Project, São Paulo, Brazil 2022-01-27T15:34:43-03:00 José Eduardo Viglio Lúcia da Costa Ferreira <p>The constitutional role and authority of the Public Prosecutor’s Office (MP) as an enforcer of law warranted the MP protagonism in the enforcement of environmental legislation and accountability of environmental agencies in Brazil. The MP instituted regional offices to tackle the environmental issue and established a team of experts to provide technical support. This research analyzes the participation of the São Paulo State Public Prosecutor’s Office (MPSP) and the Federal Public Prosecutor’s Office (MPF) experts in the environmental licensing of the Mexilhão Project. The project was located in the coastal region of the state of São Paulo and initially aimed to reduce by half the volume of natural gas imported by the country. Based on the analysis of documents and interviews, this paper shows that there were different interpretations and framings among the MP experts concerning environmental impacts and risks of the project. This study also discusses MP's influence on the decisions of the federal environmental agency about the Mexilhão Project.</p> 2022-04-29T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sustainability in Debate The disasters of war and the (un)human condition 2022-04-13T10:55:11-03:00 Marcel Bursztyn Carlos Hiroo Saito Gabriela Litre Patrícia Mesquita 2022-04-29T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sustainability in Debate