Sustainability in Debate 2022-12-29T22:02:45-03:00 Patrícia Mesquita Open Journal Systems <p>The Sustainability in Debate (SiD) Journal aims to publish original texts based on interdisciplinary research and influencing studies conducted in sustainable development and sustainability policies globally.</p> <p> </p> From the Montreal Protocol to the Climate Loss and Damage Agreement: lessons and warnings 2022-12-15T16:51:36-03:00 Gabriela Litre Marcel Bursztyn Carlos Hiroo Saito Patricia Mesquita 2022-12-29T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sustainability in Debate How wind energy is contributing to the achievement of Brazilian commitments to the Paris Agreement 2022-08-09T14:57:39-03:00 Mário Joel Ramos Júnior Paulo Soares Figueiredo Xisto Lucas Travassos Júnior <p>The Paris Agreement was signed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and Brazil is committed to increasing renewable energy participation in the electrical matrix. This study aims to evaluate how wind energy fulfils the goals determined in the agreement. Through a systematic literature review, 10 relevant studies were identified and together with the analysis of data available in the National Energy Balance report from the Energy Research Company. Comparing the data obtained in the period with the established targets was possible. The success of policies for the sector in reaching the goals above was also evaluated. The results show that wind energy is the renewable source that most benefited from tax incentives and, thus, contributed to the expansion of the share of renewable energy in the Brazilian electrical matrix.</p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sustainability in Debate Disputes and narratives on the distributed generation of electricity in Brazil: setbacks for the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development and the Paris Agreement 2022-11-17T18:21:24-03:00 Alexsandra Maria de Almeida Soares Cristiane Gomes Barreto <p>Centralization and low diversification of the Brazilian electricity matrix have increased the feeling of energy insecurity. This is a problem that is gaining greater proportions in face of climate change. This research analyzed the political arena around the regulation of distributed electricity generation. We analyzed documents, speeches, interviews, presentations, audiovisual material and press publications on distributed generation and solar power. Results indicated that, despite the great development potential of the source in the country, and the international commitments signed, the identified coalitions dispute narratives that result in setbacks for the climate and sustainable development agendas.</p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sustainability in Debate Who pays the price? -Socio-ecological controversies regarding the energy transition in South America 2022-10-26T10:04:22-03:00 Axel Bastián Poque González <p>Transformations linked to more sustainable energy and economic systems may have societal and ecological costs, which some people and territories must assume. Controversies might emerge associated with developing new productive chains, e.g., transition mineral activity. This study examines the relations among energy transition, society, and the environment, focusing on copper as a high-tech mineral and considering Bolivia, Chile, and Peru, three countries with mining-dependent economies.<br />This work tries to see if countries are becoming more renewable, efficient, and modern and if this correlates with copper activity and societal factors. As a result, Bolivia has pending tasks on both the energy demand and production sides. Despite presenting good performance on renewables and efficiency, Chile and Peru have pending tasks associated with the ecological distribution regarding mining and energy sectors. Mining-based economies might expose the fragility of green transitions in meeting sustainable goals considering equality, justice, and ecosystem care.</p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sustainability in Debate Impact of the transport system on air quality: the case of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 2022-10-31T11:04:47-03:00 Luciana Maria Baptista Ventura Isabela Rocha Pombo Lessi de Almeida Michelle Branco Ramos Marcio de Almeida D’agosto Adriana Gioda <p>In the downtown area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, an urban mobility plan was implemented between 2011 and 2016 due to 2014 FIFA World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games. This study aimed to evaluate the environmental benefits achieved by this urban mobility plan by comparing two periods: 2013 (before the megaevents) and 2017 (after the megaevents). Energy consumption and emissions from buses were estimated, and regulated pollutants (O<sub>3</sub>, CO, PM<sub>10</sub>, and PM<sub>2.5</sub>) were monitored. According to the calculations, NOx was the most emitted pollutant (60%). A 25% reduction levels for all pollutants was observed in 2017 compared to 2013. The reorganization of traffic shortened the bus routes, resulting in less fuel consumption (8%) and emissions. The annual mean concentrations of air pollutants (PM<sub>10</sub>, PM<sub>2.5</sub>, and CO) also decreased, thereby improving air quality. However, the levels of O<sub>3</sub> increased, possibly owing to the reduction of NO<sub>x</sub> levels.</p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sustainability in Debate The lack of cumulative impact analysis in the environmental licensing of the Industrial Port Complex at Pontal do Paraná, on the southern coast of Brazil 2022-07-25T16:00:25-03:00 Erica Vicente Onofre Juliana Quadros Natália Tavares de Azevedo <p>The Environmental Impact Assessment is an environmental policy instrument developed in response to societal concerns about the negative impacts of major development projects and the recognition of planetary boundaries. In Brazil, it is part of the environmental licensing process, which also encompasses various weak points. Cumulative Impacts (CIs) from multiple interventions (both natural or anthropic) across specific spaces and time frames are routinely dealt with poorly. The installation of an Industrial Port Complex (IPC) at Pontal do Paraná, a municipality on the south coast of Brazil is currently undergoing an environmental licensing process. This article analyzes five projects’ Terms of Reference (TR) and Environmental Impact Studies (EIS) to verify if and how the IPC projects assess<br />CIs. The results suggest that TRs and EISs provide insufficient to assess CIs. In the political-procedural sphere, there is no institutionalization for Cumulative Impact Analysis. Moreover, even if it is performed,it is essential to consider how power relations affect the public acceptance of mega-projects. Locally, uncertainty about CIs reflects into scenarios of environmental unsustainability.</p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sustainability in Debate Composition of the social urban water shortage vulnerability index (SUWSVI) applied to São José dos Campos, SP, Brazil 2022-11-29T10:38:55-03:00 Luciana Maria Ferrer Daniel Andrés Rodriguez Maria Cristina Forti Marcio Roberto Magalhães de Andrade Maria Aparecida de Oliveira <p>Mining dams within urban areas are a technological risk because, in the event of an accident, they affect water security. For example, a sand mining dam accident caused an interruption in the water supply in the downstream city of São José dos Campos. Thus, the social vulnerability of the population that suffered from a failure in the drinking water supply was evaluated. A water shortage indicator, the Social Urban Water Shortage Vulnerability Index – SUWSVI, was composed. Variables that best reflect the socioeconomic condition were used: Average Income of Head of Household, Female Head of Household, and Children and Elderly Dependent Ratio. The sensitivity analysis considered the city by geographic regions and zoning classes, considering infrastructure supply and lot size. The results showed that although there are full water supply and sewerage infrastructure (99.6%), the access to water was unequal (39% of the population in the medium SUWSVI range).</p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sustainability in Debate General lines to build a model of innovation impact assessment processes addressed to agricultural research organisations 2022-08-30T16:42:54-03:00 Sávio Barros de Mendonça Anne-Elisabeth Laques <p style="font-weight: 400;">This article is focused on a conceptual model of the innovation impact assessment process, especially directed to agricultural research organisations. This research proposes an existing methodology based on a literature review. The innovative contributions of this article are I. theoretical lines for constructing a model of impact assessment as a base for a future data based management system; II. a conceptual base of innovation impact assessment process that considers a cross-cut view of sustainability, integrating the environmental, social, policy, and economic dimensions. This article intends to present a theoretical model addressed to research and innovation organisations that will contribute to fulfilling the United Nations’ sustainable development goals towards more productive and sustainable agriculture and accomplishing stakeholder challenges and demands.</p> <p> </p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sustainability in Debate Public policies and adaptation to climate change: three case studies in the Brazilian Semi-Arid region 2022-12-09T05:18:30-03:00 Priscylla Dayse Almeida Gonçalves Mendes Ana Cláudia Almeida Gabriela Litre Saulo Rodrigues Filho Carlos Hiroo Saito Nelson Eduardo Bernal Dávalos Larisa Ho Bech Gaivizzo Diego Pereira Lindoso Rafael Moraes Reis Júlia Lopes Ferreira <p>Adaptation to climate change, understood as the moderation of sensitivities and the strengthening of adaptive capacities modifies the conditions and, consequently, the impacts of climate change on vulnerable populations. On the other hand, adaptive capacity depends on public policies tailored to different groups’ social, economic, and environmental realities. This article discusses specific vulnerabilities, adaptive measures and opportunities identified through semi structured interviews and participatory workshops in three groups with different socio-environmental profiles: the Fundo de Pasto (FP) traditional communities in Northern Bahia, the Tuxá indigenous community in Rodelas/ BA and the irrigated perimeters of the Juazeiro/BA-Petrolina/PE pole. These case studies confirm that adaptation is strongly conditioned by the physical characteristics of the region where the population is located (such as rainfall levels and proximity to perennial water bodies, which condition “risks”); but that it also depends on a wide range of social, economic, cultural, and political factors.</p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sustainability in Debate The Tuxá indigenous social network, interaction and exchange of information for the promotion of adaptive measures in the face of climate change 2022-12-09T10:07:30-03:00 Nelson Eduardo Bernal Dávalos Saulo Rodrigues Filho <p>Studies show Social Network Analysis (SNA) as a successful methodology within the environmental<br />sciences. In the present study, this methodology was implemented in the Tuxás indigenous community<br />in Bahia-Brazil, to understand the configuration of interaction and information flow of the people and<br />their multilevel relationship to face the environmental problem of drought. By creating networks by<br />scale, we identify actors and their roles within the community, characterising the centrality of actors<br />and their internal and external relationships to create adaptive strategic actions that strengthen the<br />links between them and local and regional initiatives. For data collection, structured interviews were<br />conducted with key informants using the snowball methodology. As a result, the SNA made it possible<br />to identify links, bottlenecks and potential institutions to reduce the vulnerability of the traditional<br />population and to identify adequate ways to promote adaptation and solve environmental problems.</p> 2022-12-29T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sustainability in Debate SiD - Table of Contents / Sumário 2022-12-29T19:44:50-03:00 SiD - Sustainability in Debate 2022-12-29T00:00:00-03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sustainability in Debate