How Could We Drink up the Sea?
From Technological Nihilism to Dwelling in the Anthropocene
Palavras-chave:Bestand;, Martin Heidegger;, philosophy of technology
Humans face wide ranging and global challenges in the Anthropocene, the most prominent of which is anthropogenic climate change. One initial pivot towards sustainability, particularly in my home country of the United States, has been to rely heavily on technological innovation powered most obviously by engineers. Using the climate activist Greta Thunberg’s speech at the 2018 United Nations Climate Change Conference as my inspiration, I try to show how some of the technology based solutions only entrench what I call the “Bestance” mentality, that is, a fundamental stance or orientation toward the natural world in the Anthropocene wherein all entities show up as mere resources. Upon showing the various ways in which traditional ethical approaches and environmental philosophical approaches have proved unhelpful in navigating the challenges of the Anthropocene, I try to demonstrat e how a Heideggerian ecophenomenological approach can help us not only understand how the world appears to many of us in the Anthropocene, but also what a more graceful way of being might look like in Heidegger’s concept of “dwelling.” Using specific examp les of current technologies pervasively normalized in the United States, including hydraulic fracturing, horizontal drilling, desalination, and artificial nitrogen based fertilization, I use Heidegger’s philosophical concepts to show how the land, sea, and air can show up as Bestand in the Anthropocene, that is, mere materials on hand to be manipulated in order to serve human interests. I then utilize HeideggerHeidegger’s notion of dwelling as a useful concept to guide a more graceful way of living in which we respe ct the way in which things unfold on their own terms using examples similarly embedded in the land, sea and air.
BARBARZA, Remmon E. “There Where Nothing Happens.” In Heidegger and the Earth: Essays in Environmental Philosophy Edited by Ladelle McWhorter and Gail Stenstad. Second edition. Toronto, Buffalo, and London: University of Toronto Press, 2009, p. 186-200.
BROWN, Charles S., and Ted TOADVINE ( Eco Phenomenology: Back to the Earth Itself Albany: State University of New York Press, 2003.
BURGESS, Steven, and Casey RENTMEESTER. “Knowing Thyself in a Contemporary Context: A Fresh Look at Heideggerian Authenticity.” In Horizons of Authenticity in Phenomenology, Existentialism, and Moral Psychology: Essays in Honor of Charles Guig non Edited by Hans Pedersen and Megan Altman. London and New York: Springer, 2015, p. 31-43.
HEIDEGGER, Martin. “Only a God Can Save Us.” Translated William J. Richardson. In Heidegger: The Man and the Thinker Edited by Thomas Sheehan. New York: Routledge, 2017, p. 45-68.
HOLTHAUS, Gary. From the Farm to the Table: What All Americans Need to Know about Agriculture Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 2014.
IRWIN, Ruth. Heidegger, Politics and Climate Change: Risking It All London and New York: Continuum, 2008.
JAMES, William. Pragmatism New York: Meridan Books, 1955.
JAMIESON, Dale. Reason in a Dark Time: Why the Struggle Against Climate Change Failed And What it Means For Our Future Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.
LALLY, Róisín. “The Ontogenesis of Wind Turbines and the Question of Sustainability.” In Sustainability in the Anthropocene: Philosophical Essays on Renewable Technologies Edited by Róisín Lally. Lanham ( Lexington Books, 2019, p. 83-98.
LEOPOLD, Aldo. A Sand County Almanac and Sketches Here and There Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1949.
LYKKEBO PETERSEN, Karen, Nadine HECK, Borja G. REGUERO, Donald POTTS, Armen HAVAGIMIAN, and Adina PAYTAN. “Biological and Physical Effects of Brine Discharge from the Carlsbad Desalination Plant and Implications for Future Desalination Plant Constructions. Water v. 11, n. 2 ( # Online: https://www.mdpi.com/2073 4441/11/2/208 Accessed: 08/26/2021.
KANT, Immanuel. Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals Edited and translated by Allen W. Wood. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2002.
MAUGERI, Leonardo. The Age of Oil: The Mythology, History, and Future of the Worl’s MostControversial Resource Wesport ( Praeger, 2006.
MCKIBBEN, Bill. The End of Nature New York: Random House, 1989.
MILL, John Stuart. “ In Utilitarianism, On Liberty, and Essays on Bentham Edited by Mary Warnock. New York: Meridian, 1962, p. 251-321.
NAESS, Arne. “The Shallow and the Deep, Long range Ecology Movement: A Summary.” Inquiry, v. 16, n. 1 (1973), p. 95-100.
NIETZSCHE, Friedrich. The Gay Science Translated by Walter Kaufmann. New York and Ontario: Vintage, 1974.
OPUKU, Emmanuela and Trish GLAZEBROOK. “ Agriculture, and Climate Policy in Ghana.” Environmental Ethics v. 40, n. 4, (2018) p. 371-387.
PLUMWOOD, Val. Feminism and the Mastery of Nature London and New York: Routledge, 1993.
POLT, Richard. “Eidetic Eros and the Liquidation of the Real.” In The Task of Philosophy in the Anthropocene: Axial Echoes in Global Space Edited by Richard Polt and Jon Wittrock. London and New York: Rowman Littlefield International, 2018, p. 63-84.
POLT, Richard, and Jon WITTROCK. “ In The Task of Philosophy in the Anthropocene: Axial Echoes in Global Space Edited by Richard Polt and Jon Wittrock. London and New York: Rowman Littlefield International, 2018, p. ix-xix.
RABALAIS, Nancy N., and R. Eugene TURNER. “Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia: Past, Present, and Future.” Limnology and Oceanography Bulletin v. 28, n. 4 (2019), p. 117-124.
CAO, Peiyu, Chaoqun LU, and Zhen YU. “Agricultural Nitrogen Fertilizer Uses in the Continental U.S. during 1850-2015: A Set of Gridded Time Series Data.” Earth System Science data v. 10 (2018), p. 969-984. Online: https://doi.org/10.5194/essd 10 969 2018 Accessed:
CLAXTON, Susanne. Heidegger’s Gods: An Ecofeminist Perspective London and New York: Rowman Littlefield International, 2017.
CRAINE, J. M., A. J. ELMORE, L. WANG, et. al “Isotopic Evidence for Oligotrophication of Terrestrial Ecosystems.” Nature, Ecology Evolution v. 2 (2018), p. 1735-1744. Online: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41559 018 0694-0 Accessed: 08/26/2021.
CRUTZEN, Paul J. “Albedo Enhancement by Stratospheric Sulfur Injections: A Contribution to Resolve a Policy Dilemma?,” Climatic Change v. 77 n. 211 (2006), p. 211-219.
CRUTZEN, Paul J. and Eugene F. STOERMER. “The ‘ The International Geos phere Biosphere Programme (IGBP) Newsletter v. 41 (2000) p. 17-18.
DANCY, Joseph R. “From the Drake Well to the Santa Rita # The History of the U.S. Permian Basin: A Miracle of Technological Innovation.” Oil and Gas, Natural Resources, and Energy Journal, v. 3, n. 5 (2018), p. 1183-1213.
DEFFEYES, Kenneth S. When Oil Peaked New York: Hill and Wang, 2010.
DREYFUS, Hubert L. “ Art, Technology, and Politics.” In The Cambridge Companion to Heidegger Edited by Charles B. Guignon. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993, p. 289-316.
FOX, Warwick. “Deep Ecology: A New Philosophy for Our Time.” The Ecologist v. 14 (1984), p. 194-204.
FRIED, Gregory. “Odysseus on the Beach: Humanity between the Anthropocene and the Hubriscene.” In The Task of Philosophy in the Anthropocene: Axial Echoes in Global Space Edited by Richard Polt and Jon Wittrock. London: Rowman Littlefield International, 2018, p. 85 105.
FOLTZ, Bruce. Inhabiting the Earth: Heidegger, Environmental Ethics, and the Metaph ysics of Nature Amherst (NY) Humanity Books, 1995.
GARDINER, Stephen M., CANEY, Simon, JAMIESON, Dale, and SHUE, Henry (eds.) Climate Ethics: Essential Readings Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.
GEVORKYAN, Sofya, and Carlos A. SEGOVIA “Earth and World(s): From Heidegger’s Fourfold to Contemporary Anthropology. Open Philosophy, v. 4, (2021),p. 58-82.
GLAZEBROOK, Trish. “Water and Oil: Global Struggles in Sustainability.” In Sustainability in the Anthropocene: Philosophical Essays on Re newable Technologies Edited by Róisín Lally. Lanham (MD) Lexington Books, 2019, p. 65-82.
GLAZEBROOK, Trish, and Matt STORY. “Heidegger and International Development.” In Heidegger in the Twenty First Century Edited by Tziovanis Georgakis and Paul J. En nis. Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media, 2015, p. 121-140.
HEIDEGGER, Martin. Discourse on Thinking Translated by John M. Anderson and E. Hans Freund. New York: Harper Row, 1966.
HEIDEGGER, Martin. What is Called Thinking? Translated by Fred D. Wieck and J. Glenn Gray. New York: Harper Row, 1968.
HEIDEGGER, Martin. The End of Philosophy Translated by Joan Stambaugh. New York: Harper Row, 1973.
HEIDEGGER, Martin. Early Greek Thinking: The Dawn of Western Philosophy Tra nslated by David Farrell Krell and Frank A. Capuzzi. New York: Harper Row, 1975.
HEIDEGGER, Martin. The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays Translated by William Lovitt. New York: Harper Row, 1977.
HEIDEGGER, Martin. Basic Writings: Revise d and Expanded Edition Edited by David Farrell Krell. New York: HarperCollins, 1993.
HEIDEGGER, Martin. Introduction to Metaphysics Translated by. Gregory Fried and Richard Polt. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2000.
HEIDEGGER, Martin. Contr ibutions to Philosophy: Of the Event Translated by Richard Rojcewicz and Daniela Vallega Neu. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2012.
RENTMEESTER, Casey. Heidegger and the Environment London and New York: Rowman Littlefield International, 2016.
SINGER, Peter. Animal Liberation New York: HarperCollins, 1975.
SOLLEY, D., C. GRONOW, S. TAIT, J. BATES, J., and A. BUCHANAN. “Managing the Reverse Osmosis Concentrate from the Western Corridor Recycled Water Scheme.” Water Practice Technology, v. 5, (2010), p. 1-8.
STOREY, David E. Naturalizing He idegger: His Confrontation with Nietzsche, His Contributions to Environmental Philosophy Albany: State University of New York Press, 2015.
TAGLIABUE, John. “Rebuilding a Dutch Tradition, One Windmill at a Time.” New York Times July 22, 2008. Online: https://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/22/world/europe/22windmills.html Accessed: 04/20/2021.
THUNBERG, Greta. “2018 United Nations Climate Change Conference Speech.” Online: https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/resource/COP24_HLS_ENGO.pdf Accessed: 05/20/2021.
WARMAN, Arturo. Corn Capitalism: How a Botanical Bastard Grew to Global Dominance Translate d by Nancy. L. Westrate. Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.
WARREN, Karen J. ( Ecological Feminist Philosophies Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1996.
WECHSLER, Matt, and Annie SPEICHER. Sustainab le. Hourglass Films, 2016. Online: sustainablefoodfilm.com Accessed: 04/28/2021.
ZIMMERMAN, Michael E. “Toward a Heideggerean Ethos for Radical Environmentalism.” Environmental Ethics, v. 5 (1983), p. 99-131.
ZIMMERMAN, Michael E. “Implications of Heidegger’s Thought for Deep Ecology.” The Modern Schoolman, v. 64 (1986), p. 19-43.
ZIMMERMAN, Michael E. Heidegger’s Confrontation with Modernity: Technology, Politics, Art Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1990.
Copyright (c) 2021 Das Questões
Este trabalho está licenciado sob uma licença Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Autores que publicam nesta revista concordam com os seguintes termos:
Autores mantém os direitos autorais e concedem Ã revista o direito de primeira publicação, sendo o trabalho simultaneamente licenciado sob a Creative Commons Attribution License o que permite o compartilhamento do trabalho com reconhecimento da autoria do trabalho e publicação inicial nesta revista.
Autores têm autorização para assumir contratos adicionais separadamente, para distribuição não-exclusiva da versão do trabalho publicada nesta revista (ex.: publicar em repositório institucional ou como capítulo de livro), com reconhecimento de autoria e publicação inicial nesta revista.
Autores têm permissão e são estimulados a publicar e distribuir seu trabalho online (ex.: em repositórios institucionais ou na sua página pessoal) a qualquer ponto antes ou durante o processo editorial, já que isso pode gerar alterações produtivas, bem como aumentar o impacto e a citação do trabalho publicado.