BUILDING SUSTAINABILITY INTO AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY CHAINS: WHAT ROLE FOR PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW?

Autores

  • Jeanette M.E. Tramhel Organization of American States (OAS)

Palavras-chave:

Private International Law, Sustainability, Agricultural Supply Chains

Resumo

This article considers certain private international law (PIL) instruments and how these might be used effectively to achieve greater sustainability in agricultural supply chains. After an overview of key concepts in sustainability, supply chains and the broader interpretation of PIL, investigation is made into the use of PIL as an immediate measure to keep supply chains open during crises such as pandemic or war. Taking the longer view, PIL instruments are considered for use to develop supply chains that are: 1) economically sustainable through improved access to credit; 2) environmentally sustainable through improved contract farming, and; 3) socially sustainable through land investment contracts. In the face of a governance gap for global supply chains, industry-led efforts through corporate social responsibility (CSR) are explored to consider whether agribusinesses that can demonstrate compliance with sustainable development parameters also meet the requirements of environmental, social and governance (ESG) factors to attract green finance and satisfy the demands of conscientious consumers through the use of Private Voluntary Standards (PVS). The question for reflection is what role PIL might have in strengthening such governance through the incorporation of international standards into binding contractual relationships to  thereby foster sustainable agriculture and global food security.  

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Métricas

Carregando Métricas ...

Biografia do Autor

Jeanette M.E. Tramhel , Organization of American States (OAS)

Senior Legal Officer with the Department of International Law of the Secretariat for Legal Affairs at the Organization of American States (OAS). In that capacity, she is responsible for matters related to private international law and serves the OAS in its work in this field through support to the political organs (Committee on Juridical and Political Affairs) and the legal advisory body (Inter-American Juridical Committee) and in the management of technical assistance projects carried out in partnership with OAS Member States embarking upon legislative implementation and domestic law reform. She holds a Master of Laws in International and Comparative Law (LL.M., with distinction) from Georgetown University, an LL.B. from Queen's University in Canada and is a member
of the bar in New York and Ontario (Canada). Jeannette has served as a Legal Officer with the secretariat for the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) and worked in
international agricultural trade policy with the Government of Canada; she has practiced business law
with a major Canadian firm and has taught courses in international trade and business law.
Jeannette also holds a Master of Environmental Design and a Bachelor of Agricultural Science with prior experience as an agricultural economist. She has worked as an international development professional on a range of issues in partnership with communities in Southeast Asia, Africa, Central America and the Caribbean to orchestrate projects that emphasize a community-based, participatory process. With over 25 years of combined experience in law, agriculture and environmental design, Jeannette brings a creative and interdisciplinary approach to the complex issues of global food security and the use of law as an effective instrument for sustainable development.

Referências

AMAESHI, K., OSUJI, O. and NNODIM, P. Corporate Social Responsibility in Supply Chains of Global Brands: A Boundaryless Responsibility? Clarifications, Exceptions and Implications. Journal of Business Ethics. Volume 81:1, 223-234, 2008. http://hdl.handle.net/10871/10041

BAKERHOSTETLER. FAQs: Ukraine-Russia Conflict: Force Majeure and Other Defenses to Contractual Performance. April 25, 2022. https://www.bakerlaw.com/FAQs-Ukraine-Russia-Conflict-Force-Majeure-and-Other-Defenses-to-Contractual-Performance (accessed March 28, 2023).

CALIFORNIA. California Transparency in Supply Chains Act of 2010. Companies subject to the Act must disclose their efforts in these areas: verification, audits, certification, internal accountability, and training. https://oag.ca.gov/SB657 (accessed March 28, 2023).

CARTER, Craig R., ROGERS, Dale S. and CHOI, Thomas Y. Toward the Theory of the Supply Chain. Journal of Supply Chain Management. Volume 51:2, 2015.https://keep.lib.asu.edu/_flysystem/fedora/c160/Carter_2015.pdf

Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive. Directive 2022/2464/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 December 2022 amending Regulation No 537/2014/EU, Directive 2004/109/EC, Directive 2006/43/EC and Directive 2013/34/EU, as regards corporate sustainability reporting. http://data.europa.eu/eli/dir/2022/2464/oj

DE SCHUTTER, Olivier. Addressing Concentration in Food Supply Chains: The Role of Competition Law in Tackling the Abuse of Buyer Power. Briefing Note 03, December 2010. http://www.srfood.org/images/stories/pdf/otherdocuments/20101201_briefing-note-03_en.pdf (accessed March 28, 2023).

DOANE, Deborah, MACGILLAVRAY, Alex. Economic Sustainability: The business of staying in business. New Economics Foundation, The Sigma Project, R&D Report. 2001. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Deborah-Doane/publication/237302235_Economic_Sustainability_The_business_of_staying_in_business/links/5440f98d0cf2a6a049a356ff/Economic-Sustainability-The-business-of-staying-in-business.pdf.

ECCLES, Robert G., KASTRAPELI, Mirtha D. and POTTER, Stephanie J. How to integrate ESG into investment decision‐making: Results of a global survey of institutional investors. Journal of Applied Corporate Finance. Volume 29:4, 125-133, 2017. https://www.viex-americas.com/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/How-to-Integrate-ESG-into-Investment.pdf.

ERRY, Daniel, YANEZ, Melanie, BENZ, Stephen. Russian Invasion of Ukraine: Potential Litigation Issues. Harvard Law School Forum on Corporate Governance. April 12, 2022. https://corpgov.law.harvard.edu/2022/04/12/russian-invasion-of-ukraine-potential-litigation-issues/ (accessed March 28, 2023).

EUROPEAN UNION. Non-Financial Reporting Directive (NFRD). Directive 2014/95/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2014 amending Directive 2013/34/EU as regards disclosure of non-financial and diversity information by certain large undertakings and groups. http://data.europa.eu/eli/dir/2014/95/oj

FAO and INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (IISD). Model Agreement for Responsible Contract Farming. With Commentary. Rome: FAO/IISD, 2018. https://www.fao.org/3/CA1772EN/ca1772en.pdf.

FAO, COMMITTEE ON FOOD SECURITY. Principles for Responsible Investment in Agriculture and Food Systems. Endorsed by the CFS at its 41st session on 15 October 2014 (RAI Principles).

FAO, COMMITTEE ON FOOD SECURITY. Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security. Endorsed by the CFS at its 38th (Special) Session on 11 May 2012 (VGGT).

FAO, COMMITTEE ON WORLD FOOD SECURITY, High Level Panel of Experts. Investing in smallholder agriculture for food security. A report by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition of the Committee on World Food Security. http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/hlpe/hlpe_documents/HLPE_Reports/HLPE-Report-6_Investing_in_smallholder_agriculture.pdf.

FAO, INTERNATIONAL FUND FOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT (IFAD), WORLD FOOD PROGRAMME (WFP) and WORLD BANK. Joint Statement on COVID-19 Impacts on Food Security and Nutrition. On the Occasion of the Extraordinary G20 Agricultural Minister’s Meeting, April 21, 2020. https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/statement/2020/04/21/joint-statement-on-covid-19-impacts-on-food-security-and-nutrition (accessed March 28, 2023).

FAO. A battle plan for ensuring global food supplies during the COVID-19 crisis. https://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/1268059/icode (accessed March 28, 2023.).

FAO. Building a Common Vision for Sustainable Food and Agriculture: Principles and Approaches. Rome: FAO, 2014. https://www.fao.org/3/i3940e/i3940e.pdf.

FAO. Contract Farming Resource Center. http://www.fao.org/in-action/contract-farming/background/en/ (accessed March 28, 2023).

FAO. Declaration of the World Food Summit (November 16-18, 2009) FAO Doc. WSFS 2009/2.

FAO. Guiding Principles for responsible contract farming operations. Rome: FAO, 2012. https://www.fao.org/3/i2858e/i2858e.pdf.

FAO. The State of Food And Agriculture: Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security. Rome: FAO, 2016. https://www.fao.org/3/i6030e/i6030e.pdf.

FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS (FAO), ALEXANDRATOS, Nikos and BRUINSMA, Jella. World Agriculture Towards 2030/2050: The 2012 Revision. Working Paper No. 12-03. FAO Agricultural Development Economics Division. Rome: FAO, 2012. https://www.fao.org/3/ap106e/ap106e.pdf.

GABRIEL, Henry D. Warehouse Receipts and Securitization in Agricultural Finance. Uniform Law Review. Volume 17, 369-376, 2012.

GERMANY, FEDERAL MINISTRY FOR ECONOMIC COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT. More Fairness in global Supply chains: Germany leads the way. https://www.bmz.de/en/issues/supply-chains (accessed March 28, 2023).

GILLAN, Stuart L., KOCH, Andrew and STARKS, Laura T. Firms and social responsibility: A review of ESG and CSR research in corporate finance. Journal of Corporate Finance. Volume 66, 1-45, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcorpfin.2021.101889.

GOODLAND, Robert. The Concept of Environmental Sustainability. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. Volume 26, 1-24, 1995. https://are.berkeley.edu/courses/ARE298/Readings/goodland.pdf.

HAGUE CONFERENCE ON PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW (HCCH). Principles on Choice of Law in International Commercial Contracts. Approved on March 19, 2015. https://www.hcch.net/en/instruments/conventions/full-text/?cid=135.

HAYS, Adam. The Supply Chain: From Raw Materials to Order Fulfillment. July 30, 2022. Investopedia. https://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/supplychain.asp (accessed March 12, 2023).

HEEHY, Benedict. Defining CSR: Problems and Solutions. Journal of Business Ethics. Volume 131:3, 625–648, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-014-2281-x.

INSTITUTO HISPANO LUSO AMERICANO DERECHO INTERNACIONAL (IHLADI). COVID-19 and Frustration of International Contracts. IHLADI Recommendations, July 22, 2020. http://ihladi.net/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/COVID-19-and-frustration-of-international-contracts.pdf (accessed March 28, 2023).

INTERNATIONAL PANEL OF EXPERTS ON SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEMS (IPES-Food). Too Big to Feed: Exploring the Impacts of Mega-mergers, Consolidation and Concentration of Power in the Agri-food Sector. 2017 http://www.ipes-food.org/_img/upload/files/Concentration_FullReport.pdf (accessed March 28, 2023).

INTERNATIONAL SUSTAINABILITY STANDARDS BOARD. https://www.ifrs.org/groups/international-sustainability-standards-board/ (accessed March 28, 2023).

KONING, Juliette. Social sustainability in a globalizing world: context, theory and methodology explored. Proceedings of the UNESCO/MOST meeting, The Hague, The Netherlands. 2001. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Juliette-Koning/publication/242642851.

LAKHANI, Nina. Corporate colonization: small producers boycott UN food summit. The Guardian. September 23, 2012. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2021/sep/23/small-producers-boycott-un-food-summit-corporate-interests (accessed March 28, 2023).

LEBARON, G. and RÜHMKORF, Andreas. Steering CSR Through Home State Regulation: A Comparison of the Impact of the UK Bribery Act and Modern Slavery Act on Global Supply Chain Governance. Global Policy. Volume 8:53, 15-28. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1111/1758-5899.12398.

MORAN BOVIO, David. Ley Modelo Interamericana sobre Garantías Mobiliarias: Su Implementación. OAS & Marcel Pons, 2020. https://www.oas.org/es/sla/ddi/docs/publicacion_Ley_Modelo_Interamericana_sobre_Garantias_Mobiliarias_Su_Implementacion.pdf.

MORRISON, Edward, and BRIDWELL, Larry. Consumer social responsibility: the true corporate social responsibility. Competition Forum. American Society for Competitiveness, Volume 9:1, 1-6, 2011.

NOLAN, Justine. Business and human rights: The challenge of putting principles into practice and regulating global supply chains. Alternative Law Journal. Volume 42:1, 42-46, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1177/1037969X17694783.

OAS, DEPARTMENT OF INTERNATIONAL LAW. Improving Access to Credit – A Video Explanation. http://www.oas.org/en/sla/dil/newsletter_Access_to_Credit_Feb-2017.html (accessed March 28, 2023).

OAS, INTER-AMERICAN JURIDICAL COMMITTEE (IAJC). Electronic Warehouse Receipts for Agricultural Products. CJI/doc. 427/13. Annual Report of the IAJC to the General Assembly. OEA/Ser.Q CJI/doc.443/13.

OAS. Model Inter-American Law on Secured Transactions. OEA/Ser.K/XXI.6, CIDIP-VI/RES.5/02, February 8, 2002.

ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT (OECD) AND FAO. OECD-FAO Guidance for Responsible Agricultural Supply Chains. Paris: OECD Publishing, 2016. Recommendation I. https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264251052-en.

ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES (OAS), INTER-AMERICAN JURIDICAL COMMITTEE (IAJC). Guide on the Law Applicable to International Commercial Contracts in the Americas. OAS/Ser.Q, CJI/RES. 249 (XCIV-0/19), February 21, 2019.http://www.oas.org/en/sla/iajc/docs/Guide_Law_Applicable_to_International_Commercial_Contracts_in_the_Americas.pdf.

POLLMAN, Elizabeth. Corporate Social Responsibility, ESG, and Compliance. In VAN ROOIJ, Benjamin & SOKOL, Daniel (Eds.) The Cambridge Handbook of Compliance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2021 https://scholarship.law.upenn.edu/faculty_scholarship/2568.

RÜHMKORF, Andreas. Global supply chain governance: The search for 'what works'. Deakin Law Review. Volume 23: 63-82, 2018. https://doi.org/10.21153/dlr2018vol23no0art806.

SALMINEN, Jaakko, and RAJAVUORI, Mikko. Private International Law, Global Value Chains and the externalities of transnational production: towards alignment? Transnational Legal Theory Volume 12:2, 230-248, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1080/20414005.2021.1970470.

SARFATY, Galit A. Shining Light on Global Supply Chains. Harvard International Law Journal. Volume 56:2, 419-463, 2015. https://commons.allard.ubc.ca/fac_pubs.

SAUMIER, Genevieve. Sustainable Consumption and Production. In: MICHAELS, Ralf; RUIZ ABOU-NIGM, Verónica; VAN LOON, Hans (eds.). The Private Side of Transforming our World - UN Sustainable Development Goals 2030 and the Role of Private International Law. Cambridge: Intersentia, 2021. https://www.intersentiaonline.com/library/the-private-side-of-transforming-our-world-un-sustainable-development-goals-2030-and-the-role-of-p.

STEHL, Kolja, NG, Leonard and FEEHILY, Matt. EU Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive – What do Companies Need to Know. Harvard Law School Forum on Corporate Governance. August 23, 2022. https://corpgov.law.harvard.edu/2022/08/23/eu-corporate-sustainability-reporting-directive-what-do-companies-need-to-know/ (accessed March 28, 2023).

TAYAN, Brian. ESG Ratings: A Compass without Direction. Harvard Law School Forum on Corporate Governance. August 24, 2022. https://corpgov.law.harvard.edu/2022/08/24/esg-ratings-a-compass-without-direction/ (accessed March 28, 2023).

TETTAMANZI, Patrizia, VENTURINI, Giorgio, MURGOLO, Michael. Sustainability and Financial Accounting: A Critical Review on the ESG Dynamics. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. Volume 29:16758–16761. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-18596-2.

THORLAKSON, Tannis, HAINMUELLER, Jeans, LAMBIN, Eric, F. Improving Environmental Practices in Agricultural Supply chains: The Role of Company-led Standards. Global Environmental Change. Volume 48, 32-42, 2018.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2017.10.006.

UKRAINIAN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY. Regarding the Certification of Force Majeure. No. 2024/02.0-7.1 Dated February 28, 2022. https://ucci.org.ua/uploads/files/621ce831ac29f951072237.pdf (accessed March 28, 2023).

UN, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Economic Analysis. World Economic Situation and Prospects: March 2023 Briefing, No. 170. https://www.un.org/development/desa/dpad/publication/world-economic-situation-and-prospects-march-2023-briefing-no-170/ (accessed March 23, 2023).

UN, DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS. Sustainable Development Goals. https://sdgs.un.org/goals/goal2 (accessed March 28, 2023).

UNGA. The right to food. Note by the Secretary General. Interim Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Olivier de Schutter. A/66/262, August 4, 2011. https://www.ohchr.org/sites/default/files/Documents/Issues/Food/A.66.262_en.pdf.

UNGA. The right to food. Note by the Secretary General. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Michael Fakhri. A/76/237. July 27, 2021. https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N21/208/03/PDF/N2120803.pdf?OpenElement.

UNIDROIT and IFAD. Legal Guide on Agricultural Land Investment Contracts. Rome: UNIDROIT/IFAD, 2021. https://www.unidroit.org/wp-content/uploads/2023/02/ALIC-Guide-links-pgs.pdf.

UNIDROIT, Convention on International Interests in Mobile Equipment (adopted November 16, 2001) 2307 UNTS 285. https://www.unidroit.org/english/conventions/mobile-equipment/mobile-equipment.pdf.

UNIDROIT, FAO and IFAD. Legal Guide on Contract Farming. Rome: UNIDROIT/FAO/IFAD, 2015. http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4756e.pdf.

UNIDROIT. Note of the Secretariat on the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts and the COVID-19 Health Crisis. July 15, 2020. https://www.unidroit.org/english/news/2020/200721-principles-covid19-note/note-e.pdf (accessed March 28, 2023).

UNIDROIT. Principles of International Commercial Contracts. 4th Edition. Rome: UNIDROIT, 2016.

UNIDROIT. Protocol to the Convention on International Interests in Mobile Equipment on Matters Specific to Mining, Agricultural and Construction Equipment (adopted November 22, 2019) https://www.unidroit.org/english/conventions/mobile-equipment/mac-protocol-e.pdf.

UNIDROIT. Selected Web and Bibliographical References on or relevant for Contract Farming Operations. https://www.unidroit.org/instruments/contract-farming/web-bibliographical-references/ (accessed March 28, 2023).

UNIDROIT. Work in Progress: Model Law on Warehouse Receipts. https://www.unidroit.org/work-in-progress/model-law-on-warehouse-receipts/ (accessed March 28, 2023).

UNITED KINGDOM. Modern Slavery Act 2015, UK Public Acts, 2015, c. 30. https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2015/30/contents/enacted.

UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE LAW (UNCITRAL). Model Law on Secured Transactions (2016) https://uncitral.un.org/sites/uncitral.un.org/files/media-documents/uncitral/en/19-08779_e_ebook.pdf.

UNITED NATIONS COMMITTEE ON ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND CULTURAL RIGHTS. General Comment 12: The right to adequate food (Art. 11) (1999) UN Doc. E/C.12/1999/5.

UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY (UNGA). Final Report: The transformative potential of the right to food. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to food, Olivier de Schutter. A/HRC/25/57. January 24, 2014 https://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session25/Documents/A_HRC_25_57_ENG.DOC.

UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY (UNGA). Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Doc. A/RES/70/1. September 25, 2015. “Agenda 2030” https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N15/291/89/PDF/N1529189.pdf?OpenElement.

UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION. Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights: Implementing the United Nations “Protect, Respect and Remedy” Framework. A/HRC/17/31 21 March 2011 (Ruggie Principles).

UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVLOPMENT ORGANIZATION (UNIDO). What is CSR? https://www.unido.org/our-focus/advancing-economic-competitiveness/competitive-trade-capacities-and-corporate-responsibility/corporate-social-responsibility-market-integration/what-csr (accessed March 28, 2023).

UNITED NATIONS, CHIEF EXECUTIVES BOARD FOR COORDINATION. Sustainable Management in the United Nations System: 2020-2030. Phase II: Towards Leadership in environmental and social sustainability. CEB/2021/2/Add.1 29 October 2021. https://unsceb.org/strategy-sustainability-management-united-nations-system-2020-2030.

UNITED NATIONS, DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS, POPULATION DIVISION. World Population Prospects 2022: Summary of Results. UN DESA/POP/2021/TR/NO. 3. New York: UN, 2022.

UNITED NATIONS. DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS. The Sustainable Development Goals Report 2022. New York: UN, 2022. https://unstats.un.org/sdgs/report/2022/The-Sustainable-Development-Goals-Report-2022.pdf.

UNITED NATIONS. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966) UN Doc A/RES/21/2200, 993 UNTS 3.

UNITED NATIONS. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) UN Doc A/RES/217(III) A, GAOR 3rd Session

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. Message to the House of Representatives: President’s Veto of H.J. Res. 30. https://www.whitehouse.gov/briefing-room/presidential-actions/2023/03/20/message-to-the-house-of-representatives-presidents-veto-of-h-j-res-30/ (access March 28, 2023).

VIINIKAINEN, Teemu and CARO, Carmen Bullon. Enabling regulatory frameworks for contract farming. FAO Legislative Study 111. FAO Legal Office, Development Law Service. Rome: FAO, 2018. http://www.fao.org/3/I8595EN/i8595en.pdf

WILL, M. GlobalGAP smallholder group certification: Challenge and Opportunity for smallholder inclusion into global value chains, in

VAN DER MEULEN, B. (Ed.). Private Food Law: governing food chains through contract law, self-regulation, private standards, audits and certification schemes. The Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2011.

WORLD BANK. Enabling the Business of Agriculture 2019. Washington DC: World Bank, 2019. https://doi.org/978-1-4648-1387-0

Revista Direito.UnB | V. 07, N. 3, Tomo I, EDIÇÃO ESPECIAL 2023

Downloads

Publicado

2023-11-08

Como Citar

M.E. TRAMHEL , Jeanette. BUILDING SUSTAINABILITY INTO AGRICULTURAL SUPPLY CHAINS: WHAT ROLE FOR PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW? . Direito.UnB - Revista de Direito da Universidade de Brasília, [S. l.], v. 7, n. 3 - Tomo I - Edição Especial, p. 101–136, 2023. Disponível em: https://periodicos.unb.br/index.php/revistadedireitounb/article/view/48948. Acesso em: 28 fev. 2024.

Artigos Semelhantes

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > >> 

Você também pode iniciar uma pesquisa avançada por similaridade para este artigo.