Bio-historical diversity, sustainability and collaboration in the Xingu

Autores

  • Michael Heckenberger

Palavras-chave:

Amazônia, Arqueologia, Estudos de Sustentabilidade, Herança Cultural, Povos Indígenas

Resumo

Os estudos de sustentabilidade no século XXI reconhecem amplamente que os vínculos teóricos e práticos entre ciências naturais e sociais são necessários para se entender a dinâmica de sistemas humano-naturais, especialmente na escala de séculos e milênios. A arqueologia e estudos congêneres sobre a história local indígena têm um papel crucial para entendermos a dinâmica de longo prazo de sistemas humano-naturais e a formação de paisagens culturais na Amazônia, inclusive a influência antropogênica do passado e o uso atual da terra por descendentes de populações indígenas locais. Esses estudos têm por objetivo levantar questões chave em pesquisas tropicais contemporâneas, principalmente, sobre como seres humanos precipitaram, direcionaram ou foram influenciados por mudanças ambientais ao longo do tempo em termos de respostas e resiliência frente a mudanças ecológicas, gestão sustentável de recursos naturais, além da herança indígena e direitos culturais. Além disso, esse entendimento fornece soluções alternativas “caseiras” ligadas a sistemas semi-intensivos indígenas de uso da terra, incluindo a substancial engenharia de paisagem e como funcioram e mudaram. Portanto, as estratégias indígenas de gerenciamento de recursos, enquanto modelos de uso alternativo da terra, contêm indícios vitais para o desenvolvimento sustentável e mitigação de mudanças climáticas, além de adaptação a longo prazo. Este trabalho elabora essas ideias do ponto de vista específico do Alto Xingu no sul da Amazônia brasileira, enfatizando que a questão crítica a ser posta pelos arqueólogos, depois que já estejam bem adiantadas as tarefas de escavar, mapear, rearranjar e falar sobre coisas do “passado”, é a seguinte: quais são as questões sociais e éticas dessa pesquisa, especialmente em termos dos próprios povos indígenas.

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Publicado

2018-02-16

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Heckenberger, M. (2018). Bio-historical diversity, sustainability and collaboration in the Xingu. Anuário Antropológico, 39(2), 69–97. Recuperado de https://periodicos.unb.br/index.php/anuarioantropologico/article/view/6819