Além do Leiwah da Arábia Oriental

Estrutura de um rito de posse na longue durée

  • Maho Sebiane Museu Nacional de História Natural (MNHN), Paris e Centro de Pesquisa de Etnomusicologia (CREM), Centro Nacional de Pesquisa Científica (CNRS), Nanterre, Paris
Palavras-chave: Arábia Oriental, África Oriental, Ritual de possessão, Zunúj, dança leiwah

Resumo

Ao longo das margens do Golfo Persa e especialmente no leste da Arábia, o leiwah é um rito de possessão envolvendo música e dança. É praticado por descendentes de escravos da África Oriental chamados Zunûj. Consideram-na como nativa da costa da Swahili (Bilâd as-sawâhil). De fato, sua presença nesta região data do final do século XIX como resultado do comércio de escravos do Oceano Índico. No entanto, o leiwah é mais conhecido como uma dança de entretenimento e percebida pela jovem geração árabe urbanizada como uma tradição secular e local, de inspiração árabe. Esta situação deve-se em parte ao fato de que a apresentação desta prática pelas instituições culturais dos Estados do Golfo minimizaram todos os seus laços com a África e não mencionam a história da escravidão Zunúj. Então, o que significa leiwah para aqueles que a praticam? Quais são as influências culturais nas quais foi estabelecida, bem como as especificidades desta prática no leste da Arábia, dado que a velha geração do Zunûj considera o leiwah como uma expressão cultural da África Oriental e é basicamente um rito de posse? Este artigo foca o estudo do leiwah numa perspectiva diacrônica. O objetivo é, por um lado, substituir numa perspectiva histórica alguns elementos antropológicos e musicológicos observados em sincronia e, por outro, esclarecer suas influências culturais que contribuiriam para uma melhor compreensão de como e a partir do que esta prática foi elaborada na Arábia Oriental.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Maho Sebiane, Museu Nacional de História Natural (MNHN), Paris e Centro de Pesquisa de Etnomusicologia (CREM), Centro Nacional de Pesquisa Científica (CNRS), Nanterre, Paris

Dr., antropólogo e etnomusicólogo do Centro de Pesquisa em Artes e Linguagem, EHESS, Centro de Pesquisa em Etnomusicologia, LESC-CNRS, Museu do Homem e Museu Nacional de História Natural (MNHN), Paris. Sua pesquisa se concentra nas diferentes práticas musicais e rituais no Golfo Pérsico. Elas envolvem, em particular, uma reflexão sobre o ajuste dos processos de categorização implementados nesta região e seu impacto na compreensão e representatividade das práticas musicais no mundo árabe-islâmico. Ele publicou recentemente os artigos "Traditional Music Patrimonialization in the United Arab Emirates: State of play and Stakes of a Cultural Policy in Mutation (1971-2010)” in Translingual Discourse in Ethnomusicology 2, e “Entre Afrique et Arabie: les esprits de possession sawâhili et leurs frontières” no Journal des Africanistes.

Referências

Al-Fares, Mohammad Fares. 2000. Al-awdâ’ al-iqtissadiyyah fî imârât as-sâhil (Dawlat al-imârât al-‘Arabîyya al-Muttahida hâliyyan) 1862-1965 [The Economic conditions in the Emirates coast (the nation of the current UAE) 1862-1965]. Abu Dhabi: Emirates Center for Strategic Studies and Research.

Allen, John. W. T. and Bin Mwinyi Bakari Mtoro. 1981. The customs of the Swahili people: the Desturi za Waswahili of Mtoro bin Mwinyi Bakari and other Swahili persons. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Al-Khan, Waheed A. 1989. Mûsiqa al-laywah fi-l-khalîj (The laywah music in the Gulf). Doha: Markaz al-turâth al-sha’bi li-duwal al-khalij al-’arabi (The Arab Gulf States Folklore Centre).

________. 1994. The Leewah in Bahrain as an art form: A textual analysis of the Leewah Dance- Songs. Al-Ma'thûrât al-sha'biyya (Popular Heritage) 21: 7-29. Doha: The Arab Gulf States Folklore centre.

Alpers, Edward A. 2000. Recollecting Africa: Diasporic Memory in the Indian Ocean World. Special Issue on the Diaspora, African Studies Review 43 (1): 83-99.

Al-Zein, Amira. 2009. Islam, Arabs and the Intelligent World of the Jinn. Contemporary Issues in the Middle East. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press.

Askew, Kelly. 2002. Performing the Nation: Swahili Music and Cultural Politics in Tanzania. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Bacuez, Pascal. 2007. Djinns et sorcellerie dans la société swahili, Journal des africanistes 77 (1): 7-27.

________. 2008. Les Djinns dans la société swahilie : hybridité et entre-deux. unpublished.

Barth, Fredrik. Ethnic Groups and Boundaries. The Social Organization of Culture Difference. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 1969.

Khalifa, Aisha Bilkhair. 2006. African influence on culture and music in Dubai. International Social Science Journal 58: 227–235.

Bornand Sandra, and Cécile Leguy. 2013. Anthropologie des pratiques langagières. Paris: Armand Colin.

Braudel, Fernand. 1958. Histoire et Sciences sociales: La longue durée. Annales, Économies, Sociétés, Civilisations, 13e année (4): 725-753.

________. [1969] 2013. Écrits sur l’histoire. Paris: Champs-Flammarion.

Burton, Richard. 1860. The Lake Regions of Central Africa a Picture of Exploration. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers.

Campbell Carol A., and Carol M. Eastman. 1984. Ngoma: Swahili Adult Song Performance in Context. Ethnomusicology 28 (3): 467-493.

Castro Buendía, Guillermo. 2014. Música e historia del Zapateado. Revista del Centro de Investigación Flamenco Telethusa 7(8): 22-37.

Christensen Dieter, and Salwa El-Shawan Castelo-Branco. 2009. Traditional Arts in Southern Arabia Music and Society in Sohar. Berlin: Verlag für Wissenschaft und Bildung, Intercultural Music Studies (14).

Deutsch, Jan Georg. 2006. Emancipation without Abolition in German East Africa (c.1884-1914). Oxford: James Currey.

Duwîb, Khalifa. 1982. Aghânî al-a’râss fî dawlat al-imârât al-‘arabiyyah al-muttahidah [The weddings songs in the UAE nation]. Abu-Dhabi: Wizârat al-i’lâm wa-t-thaqâfah [Ministry of Information and Culture].

Eastman, Carol M. 1971. Who Are the Waswahili? Journal of the International African Institute 41 (3): 228-236.

________. 1986. Nyimbo za Watoto: The Swahili Child's World View. Ethos 14 (2): 144-173.

Fair, Linda. 1996. Identity, Difference, and Dance: Female Initiation in Zanzibar, 1890 to 1930 , Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 17 (3) : 146-172.

Galaty John, Leavitt John. 1991. Culture. In Dictionnaire de l'ethnologie et de l'anthropologie, edited by Pierre Bonte, and Michael Izard, 190-196. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France

Giles, Linda L. 1987. Possession Cults on the Swahili Coast: A Re-Examination of Theories of Marginality. Journal of the International African Institute 57 (2): 234-258.

________. 1995. Sociocultural Change and Spirit Possession on the Swahili Coast of East Africa. Anthropological Quarterly, Possession and Social Change in Eastern Africa 68 (2): 89-106.

________. Spirit Possession & the Symbolic Construction of Swahili Society. In Spirit Possession. Modernity & Power in Africa, edited by Heike Behrend, and Ute Luig, 142-164. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1999.

Godelier, Maurice. 2009. Communauté, société, culture, trois clefs pour comprendre les identités en conflits. Paris: CNRS Edition.

________. [2007] 2010. Au fondement des sociétés humaines : ce que nous apprend l'anthropologie. Paris: Flammarion.

Handal, Fâlih. 1995. Al-tarkib al-sukkâni li-mujtama’ al-Imârât fi marhalat mâ qabla al-naft [The demographic structure of the UAE society before the oil period]. Dirâsât fi mujtama’ al-Imârât [Studies on Emirates society] 11: 339-355.

Hassan, Shéhérazade Qassim. 1980. Les instruments de musiques en Irak et leur rôle dans la société traditionnelle. Paris: EHESS (Cahiers de l’Homme).

Hopper, Matthew S. 2006. The African presence in Arabia: Slavery, the world economy, and the African Diaspora in Eastern Arabia, 1840- 1940. PhD diss., University of California.

Ingrams, William H. [1931] 2007. Zanzibar: its history and its peoples. London: Stacey International.

Jullien, François. 2016. Il n’y a pas d’identité culturelle. Paris: l’Herne.

Kazimirski de Biberstein, Albert. 1860. Dictionnaire Arabe-français, tome I & II. Paris: Maisonneuve et Cie.

Krapf, Johann L. 1882. Dictionary of the Suahili language. London: Trübner & Co.

Kiraithe, Jacqueline. M., and Nancy. T Baden. 1976. Portuguese influences in East African languages. African studies 35(1): 3-31.

Le Guennec-Coppens, Françoise. 1980. Kenya: musique de mariage à Lamu, LP. Paris: Selaf/Orstom.

________. 2002. Les Swahili : une singularité anthropologique en Afrique de l'Est. Journal des Africanistes, Afrique-Arabie, d'une rive à l'autre en mer Erythrée 72 (2): 55-70.

Lenselaer, Alphonse. 1983. Dictionnaire Swahili-français. Paris: Karthala.

Livingstone David, and Charles Livingstone. 1866. Exploration du Zambèse et de ses affluents et découverte des lacs Chiroua et Nyassa: 1858-1864. Paris: Hachette.

Lorimer, John G. 1907. The Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf: Oman and Central Arabia, tome I & II. Calcutta: Superintendent Government Printing.

Lovejoy, Paul E. 2000. Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Madan, Arthur C. 1903. Swahili-English dictionary. Oxford: The Clarendon Press.

Mbangale, Machozi Tshopo. 2008. Estudo morfologico dos emprestimos portugueses integrados no suaili. Africanologia 1, Revista Lusófona de Estudos Africanos.

Medard, Henry. 2013. La plus ancienne et la plus récente des traites: panorama de la traite et de l’esclavage en Afrique orientale et dans l’océan Indien. In Traites et esclavages en Afrique orientale et dans l’océan Indien, edited by Henry Medard et. al., 65-118. Paris: Karthala.

Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. 1945. Phénoménologie de la perception. Paris: Gallimard.

Miles, Samuel Barrett. 1919. The countries and tribes of the Persian gulf, vol. 1&2. London: Harrison & Sons.

Montigny, Annie. L’Afrique oubliée des noirs du Qatar, Afrique-Arabie. D’une rive à l’autre en mer d’Erythrée. Journal des Africanistes 72 (2): 214-225, 2002.

Nicolini, Beatrice. 2006. The Makran-Baluch-African Network in Zanzibar and East Africa during the XIXth Century. African and Asian Studies 3-4 (5): 347-370.

Orchardson-Mazrui, Elizabeth. 1998. Expressing Power and Status through Aesthetics in Mijikenda Society. Journal of African Cultural Studies 11 (1): 85-102.

Palgrave, William Gifford. 1865. Personal Narrative of a Year's Journey through Central and Eastern Arabia (1862-1863), vol. I & II. London: Macmillan & Co.

Prins, Adriaan Hendrik Johan. 1967. The Swahili-speaking Peoples of Zanzibar and the East African Coast. Ethnographic Survey of Africa. East Central Africa, Part XII. London: International African Institute.

Qayed, Hassan. n.d. Bâdiyat al-imârât, taqâlid wa ‘âdât, [The desert of the UAE, traditions and customs], Abû Dhabi: Muassassat Al-ittihâd lil-nashr wat-tawuzi’ [Al-Ittihad Institution for the press, publishing and distribution].

Racine-Issa, Odile. 2001. Le mwaka de Kojani-Pemba. General Linguistics, African Language and Culture in Historical Perspective Essays 38 (1-4): 199-229.

Rechenbach, Charles W. 1967. Swahili-English Dictionary. Washington: The Catholic University of America Press.

Rouget, Gilbert. 1980. La musique et la transe. Esquisse d'une théorie générale des relations de la musique et de la possession. Paris: Gallimard.

Rovsing-Olsen, Poul. 1967. La musique Africaine dans le golfe Persique, Journal of the International Folk Music Council 19: 28-36.

________. 2002. Music in Bahreïn, Tradionnal music of the Arabian Gulf. Aarhus/Bahrain: Aarhus University Press.

Sacleux, Charles. 1939. Dictionnaire Swahili-Français. Paris: Travaux et mémoires de l’Institut d’ethnologie.

Sebiane, Maho. 2004. Fann al-leiwah: une tradition musicale dans le cadre associatif de Dubai. Master thesis, Université Paris-X Nanterre.

________. 2007. Le statut socio-économique de la pratique musicale aux Émirats arabes unis: la tradition du leiwah à Dubai. Chroniques yéménites 14: 117-135.

________. 2011. La patrimonialisation des musiques traditionnelles aux Émirats Arabes Unis : état des lieux et enjeux d’une politique culturelle en mutation (1971-2010). MUSICultures 37: 61-74.

________. 2015a. L’invisible : esclavage, sawaḥili et possession dans le complexe rituel leiwah d’Arabie orientale (Sultanat d’Oman - Émirats Arabes Unis). Phd diss., Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense.

________. 2015b. Entre Afrique et Arabie : les esprits de possession sawâhili et leurs frontières. Journal des Africanistes 84 (2), 2014 : 48-79.

Shawqî, Yûsuf, and Dieter Christensen. [1989]1994. Dictionary of Traditional Music in Oman. Intercultural Music Studies 6. Wilhelmshaven: Florian Noetzel Verlag Wilhelmshaven.

Sheriff, Abdul. 1987. Slaves, Spices & Ivory in Zanzibar: Integration of an East African Commercial Empire into the World Economy, 1770–1873. London: James Currey.

Skene, Robert. 1917. Arab and Swahili Dances and Ceremonies. The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 47: 413-434.

Stone, Ruth M. 1985. Oman and the African Diaspora in song, dance and aesthetic expression, The complete documents of the International Symposium on Traditional Music in Oman, Muscat. The Omani Centre for Traditional Music: 53-66.

Stokes, Martin, ed. 1994. Ethnicity, Identity and Music: the Musical Construction of Place. Oxford: Berg Publishers.

Southgate, Minoo. 2009. The Negative Images of Blacks in Some Medieval Iranian Writings. Iranian Studies 17 (1): 3-36.

Thomas, Bertram. 1931. Alarms and Excursions in Arabia. Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Company.

________. 1932. Arabia Felix: Across the “Empty Quarter” of Arabia. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.

Topp Fargion, Janet. 2002. The Music of Zenj: Arab-African crossovers in the music of Zanzibar. Journal des africanistes 72 (2): 203-212.

UNESCO. 1980. Historical relations across the Indian Ocean, Report and papers of the meeting of experts at Port Louis, July 1974. Mauritius: UNESCO.

Vernet, Thomas. 2009. Slave trade and slavery on the Swahili coast (1500-1750). In Slavery, Islam and Diaspora, edited by Behnaz A. Montana, Ismael M. Mirzai, and Paul E. Lovejoy, 37-76. Trenton: Africa World Press.

________. 2013. Avant le giroflier. Esclavage et agriculture sur la côte swahilie, 1590-1812. In Traites et esclavages en Afrique orientale et dans l’océan Indien, edited by Henry Medard et. al. 245-306. Paris: Karthala.

Velten, Carl. 1903. Desturi za Wasuaheli na khabari za desturi za sheri'a za Wasuaheli. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Wellsted, James Raymond. 1838. Travels in Arabia, vol. 1 & 2. London: John Murray, Albemable-Street.

Publicado
2017-11-24
Como Citar
Sebiane, Maho. 2017. “Além Do Leiwah Da Arábia Oriental”. Música Em Contexto 11 (1), 13-44. http://periodicos.unb.br/index.php/Musica/article/view/11128.
Seção
Artigos Científicos - linha C